This document contains detailed information about the features of the MTS CNC Simulator for Turning & Milling Version
The CNC Simulators are employed in production as well as in vocational training and further education. We have made every effort to meet the complex requirements in both these fields of application by including appropriate new functions in the current Version 6.2 of our software, which makes the MTS Simulators one of the most efficient systems on the market today. This high performance is accompained by increased clarity and convenience of operation, due to the new user interface and function keys.
|Production||Manual and Workshop-Oriented NC programming are among the most important
fields of application of CNC Simulators in the production practice. Equally
important is the facility to check and optimise generated NC programs and
to make time calculations.
Since the MTS Simulators can simulate all aspects of a CNC machine tool, they can also test NC programs for actual production; this includes checking for possible collisions as well as establishing workpart geometries (including thread geometries and roughness depths) based on the actual state of machining. No complicated changes of programming or control systems are necessary. Finally, a generalized postprocessor serves to translate NC programs into the programming code of any given CNC control system, so that they can be transmitted to the actual machine tool.
The main performance characteristics of MTS Simulators are:
open system qualities, in order to adapt the Simulators to different
machine tools and control systems,
These characteristics make the Simulators a very effective means of support in industrial production; program errors can be avoided at an early stage and machine down times are reduced. Furthermore, the Simulators can be integrated into a complete CAD/CAM system environment, which helps minimise internal communication problems and ensures smooth production.
|CNC Training||As the capacities of modern machine tools and flexible production systems
increase, innovative professional training is required, to ensure that
the trainees will be able to meet the new demands, such as high flexibility,
an extended knowledge of systems and the ability to transfer such knowledge
to new settings. For this reason, a self-disciplined learning and working
is taken during vocational training, to promote a sense of professional
responsibility in the trainees.
In professional CNC training this objective is attained through a process of various stages. The MTS Simulators are not customised for a single learning path, but support a range of training concepts, offering a variety of possible solutions in NC programming and providing extensive information and help on every level.
|Didactical Methods||The MTS Simulator software is based on a didactic concept, which was
developed in co-operation with the German "Federal Institute of Vocational
Training" (BIBB) in Berlin, and which is constantly being improved. Relevant
didactic criteria are:
training system with all typical characteristics but not restricted
to a specific control system,
The MTS Simulators keep the user continuously informed on the actual state of the machine, with all operational functions supported by user dialogues. Collision monitoring and error messages means that NC programscan be corrected instantly. Convenient programming aid is available at any time on graphic help screens.
From a didactic point of view an important advantage of working with CNC Simulators, as compared with employing a real production machine for training purposes, is the possibility to reduce complex operational procedures to a number of simple operations at the beginning. Complexity can then be re-established with each successful step in the learning process. With the four different programming modes provided by the MTS Simulators (NC Editor; Interactive Programming; Workshop-Oriented Programming; Teach In) NC programs can be generated step by step, while each NC command programmed is immediately executed by the machine tool. This concept offers an easy way to understand the abstract programming language. The system's additional features, such as adaptation to specific machines, real time simulation and precise collision monitoring inclusive of technology data, add up to a comprehensive representation of CNC technology. Experience has shown that the simulators provide an effective but nevertheless gentle introduction to CNC technology, taking away the fear of making mistakes.
The MTS Simulators are designed to permit CNC training independent of specific control systems or specific manufacturer's products. One main educational objective of this training is to give qualified skilled workers a profound basic knowledge, along with the ability to adapt their skills to varying machine and control configurations. The voide range of CNC control systems available, increasingly with integrated CAD functions, demand highly-skilled, versatile operators. Versitility in this context is above all the ability to adapt to different machine configurations, which is precisly the ability promoted by the MTS Simulators. Several years of practical evaluation at AEG's CNC training centre in Berlin have proved the undeniable value of this approach.
|Programming Code||The MTS Simulators for Milling and Turning are structured in a modular fashion; an extensive configuration program means the can be adapted to all current NC machine tools and CNC systems. Standard operating modes are the Setup Mode and the Automatic Mode; for purposes of NC program generation and optimisation there is a choice of three further operating modes: NC Editor, Interactive Programming and Teach In Mode. The system can be upgraded by installing a user interface for "Workshop-Oriented Programming" (WOP). MTS supplies a Programming Code (also referred to as "command code" in the following) which is designed for programming according to German Standard DIN 66025 (i.e. not adopting any specific manufacturer's code). It contains all standard commands common to modern CNC controls; with the programming of complex contour strings it allows geometry input such as lengths, angles, specification of tangential transitions etc. All standard machining cycles are available as well as tool tip and cutter radius compensation.|
|In order to ensure that the software is open to different CNC controls
and can be adapted to other systems, there is the option of implementing
the "Free definition Programming Code" along with the CNC Simulators.
This program serves to assign the MTS Programming code to another command
code in cases when the user decides to employ a different language (e.g.
the one implemented in the machine control).
For purposes of CNC training the PAL programming code is also available, since it is this which is used by the chambers of industry and commerce in examinations qualifying for a certificate of proficiency.
|For data transmission between the CNC Simulators and a particular machine
control a Generalized Postprocessor is employed, which enables the
user to determine the reciprocal reference of commands in the program translation.
In addition MTS offers a choice of more than seventy postprocessors for the translation of specific DIN-based controls. These are linked to the Transmission Program which allows variable configuration of interfaces as well as the definition of control characters for data transmission.
|CAD/CAM System||Among the most important recent advancements in the field of CNC technology
has been the development of CAD/CAM interfaces serving to convert CAD design
data via NC programming systems into NC programs with the ultimate aim
of achieving computer-assisted integration of design and production. For
applications in this field MTS GmbH has developed the INCAD system,
which can be implemented with no difficulty as an extension to the MTS
INCAD constitutes an Integrated NC and CAD System, functioning both as a full-range CAD system and as a very convenient NC programming system. Among its outstanding features are a uniform user interface, serving both programs, and a direct link to the Generalized Postprocessor, facilitating the adjustment to workshop conditions.
The CAD system of INCAD offers a number of very effective and user-friendly functions for the generation, modification and documentation of design drawings. Exchange of geometry data with other CAD systems is realised through data communication in the IGES, resp. DXF formats.
The NC programming system features separate tool and technology administration, which can be generated and edited by the user. Automatic generation of NC programs (which includes contour strings as well as all current machining cycles) is established through a process of reducing a design to single contours and subsequently assigning technology data and machining methods. A graphically supported interactive dialogue guides the user through this procedure. The reproduction of specific machine and control configurations in the CNC simulators means that NC programs for turning and milling can be tested and optimized before being sent to a real production machine.
All in all the MTS software modules add up to a fully integrated CAD/CAM package, offering practice-oriented and customised solutions for production and training.
|Machine Type||The Simulator for Turning emulates a single-slide lathe, with powered
tools and C, Y and B axis operation available as an upgrade. The CNC Simulator
for Milling represents a 3D-milling machine with vertical or horizontal
Main machining modes available are the following:
The uniform WOP operating concept applies to each of the CNC Simulators, and includes function keys, menu guidance and program dialogues. Auxiliary functions to facilitate program generation and optimisation are measuring, zooming, display of intersections and 3D-representation as well as a number of programming- and controlling aids.
Realistic simulation of the machine tool and its controls is an important precondition for flexibility of application; with MTS Simulators provide the user can define the geometry of the working space and the various machine elements such as spindle, chuck, fixtures, tools, turret, tailstock etc. These parameters are considered in the simulation and computation of the workpart geometry which, with an accuracy of 1 µm , is based on the actual machining, not on the programmed address values. Exact collision checks, taking all machine components into account, are carried out during program execution; errors are denoted in plaintext messages.
|Configuration||An extensive Configuration Program serves to adapt the MTS Simulators
to specific machine and control conditions, as well as to the computer
hardware employed. Configuration possibilities are:
Machine configuration: specifications of the machine tool (machine
parameters) including geometry data and technical specifications.
Each configuration is stored in a separate configuration file, which allows quick and convenient alternation between different default settings.
|CNC Simulation||In the Automatic Mode NC programs are executed and tested in real-time simulation. The graphic-dynamical representation of the machining gives a view of either the entire workspace or a zoomed detail. During the turning simulation body lines (apparent and true edges) are dynamically updated. The same applies to the displayed intersections during the milling simulation. The display shows the NC blocks being executed, while the co-ordinates and technology data are shown in the menu field. Machining times and down times are also calculated.|
|NC Programming||In the Programming Mode there are of four different ways to
generate an NC program:
The NC Editor supports direct entry or editing of NC blocks
via its programming interface, especially suited for NC programs. Each
NC block entered is subject to an automatic syntax check ("syntax" in this
context being the internal structure of the NC blocks). There is also a
check to ensure that the values entered fall within the permitted ranges.
|Data Administration||The systems data administration is designed for convenient data
protection and documentation of NC programs and configuration files. Further
possibilities are the creation of subroutines and workpart files. Any state
of machining can be stored and reloaded when further machining of a semi-finished
part is desired.
A new feature of the system is the so-called "Setup Form Interpreter". A setup form contains all information necessary to set up the machine automatically for a specific NC program. At the same time a setup form can be automatically generated from any machine status.
In addition to these applications the CNC Simulators provide a number of special functions designed for convenience of operation. Among these are:
re-chucking (flipping) the workpart,
|Version 5.3 of the simulator software now features vector-scan display
(based on the mathematical model), which results in an even faster and
more precise screen representation of machining procedures. In the turning
and milling simulations the basic layout of operation and display has been
left unchanged, so as to maintain uniform operation in both MTS CNC Simulators.
The screen is subdivided into three areas:
|Machining Area||The upper part of the screen shows a graphic representation of the working area of the CNC machine tool, including clamping devices, workpart and tool. The size of this window can be adjusted even during the machining. With the Simulator for Turning, either the surface view (with dynamically updated true and apparent edges) or a full or half section of the workpiece is shown. Threads and roughness depths are included in the representation. The milling simulation displays the workpart and the cutter in top view. Intersections through the cutter centre in the X/Z and X/Y plane can be viewed in separate overlay windows, they are dynamically updated in the course of the machining (see Ch. 9.4 below for detailed information on sections display and 3D-representation). With all relevant information graphically presented, the machining process can be supervised in the best possible way.|
|Information Field||In the information field in the right margin of the screen the
following information on the status of the system and the machine is listed:
current tool co-ordinates,
The keys <F1> to <F8> at the bottom of the screen serve to control the applicable functions of the CNC Simulator.
|Dialog||In the line immediately above the function keys plaintext messages
are displayed when an error is made. During interactive programming this
line provides user prompts (see Diagr. 25).
In automatic mode the line above is used to display the NC block being executed.
The colours used in the display can be edited at will (depending on the graphic card employed), e.g. to match the display of a given CNC machine tool.
|There are two different ways to operate the CNC Simulator:|
|PC-Keyboard||If a PC keyboard is used, all functions are controlled by function keys. To help the user get med to the system quickly, all functions are arranged in layers of a hierarchical menu which has a uniform user interface in the MTS CNC Simulators.|
|Graphics tablet||When the CAD system INCAD is employed concurrently with the Simulators,
the PC must be equipped with a "mouse" or a graphics tablet. The tablet
can be used as a CNC keyboard by applying the touchpad foil of the simulator
Other CNC control foils may be used instead of the original MTS foil as long as the allocation of symbols, characters and digits is appropriately configured for each overlay. The user can then work with a variety of keyboard layouts at comparatively low cost.
Concurrent use of different input media is also possible.
|Since an important feature of the MTS Simluators is the emulation of
different NC machine tools, an extensive configuration program is provided
to set the default machine control parameters and to adapt the software
to the computer hardware (any IBM compatible PC and its periphery).
All configuration data (with machine, control and hardware parameters grouped separately) are stored in configuration files to be named by the user. This allows convenient "switching" between different configurations. The configuration files can be password-protected against unauthorised access.
The current Version 5.3 of the system offers considerably extended configuration possibilities, especially with regard to the components of the machine working space. This further increases the practical applicability of the simulators:
|Working Space||In addition to the overall dimensions of the working space, the tool travel range and the reference points must be defined. Furthermore, the machine model discriminates between stationary and mobile components of the working space, both of which are largely configurable.|
|Chuck System||The chuck system of the Simulator for Turning consists of the spindle
and the chuck with configurable chuck jaws. Turning between tips is possible
as well. The user also defines the geometrical dimensions of tailstock
In the Simulator for Milling the workpart can be held either by a magnetic chuck, by a vice or by any number of gripping jaws.
|The standard equipment of the CNC Simulator includes almost every type
of tool with a parameterized geometry of cutting edge and toolholder. Additional
tools can be defined with the help of tool administration. Turning tools
for instance are defined by specification of the parameters for tip radius,
plunge-, insert- and clearance angle, side length of insert and length
of toolholder. Any new tool thus defined will be stored in the tool file.
A similar procedure applies to the Simulator for Milling; standard tools already defined are universal, angular, spherical and T-slot cutters and drills.
|In the setup mode (or manual mode) all necessary preparatory activities can be carried out, such as selection of tools (in the turret or in the tool magazine), definition of the blank, selection of a clamping device etc. The input related to functional requirements (such as moving to the reference point, specifying tool compensation values, touching the workpart to define the zero point) is mandatory. Once a machine status has been defined this way, it can be set down in a "setup form" which is assigned to an NC program. Invoking this NC program will then effect the automatic setup of the appropriate simulated machine tool.|
|Blank / Chuck||The procedure of manually setting up the blank and the chuck (and the
tailstock, if applicable) is carried out with the help of a special interactive
menu. Blank dimensions must be specified, a clamping device
be selected and the chucking length defined. In all there is a choice
of eleven clamping positions (as configured - see above, Ch.3).
Appropriate error messages will appear if invalid blank dimensions have been entered, if the spindle is active, or if tool or tailstock are too close to the workpart.
Instead of defining a blank, prefabricated parts (e.g. castings) can be selected from a "parts file" to be inserted as a blank or a semi-finished part for further machining. Geometry data of such parts will automatically be read from the parts file. Conversely each semi-finished part can be stored in a file to be re-loaded at a later point in time.
|Re-chucking||In both simulators workparts can be flipped (re-chucked) any number of times.|
|Tool Selection||The CNC Simulator for Turning provides a turret which holds a maximum
of 16 tools. The Simulator for Milling provides the same number of tools
in the magazine. For training purposes tools from the tool file can be
mounted in all tool position (from T01 to T16) as default setting, so as
to simulate the equipment of an actual machine tool. This configuration
means that the turret or the magazine is automatically equipped with this
tool selection each time the simulator system is booted.
The set of tools can of course be modified in the setup mode. All tools mounted will be graphically displayed; the same applies to the total set of tools in the tool file (cf. above, Ch. 4 ).
|Offset Values||Only tools previously defined can be employed for machining in the
CNC Simulators. Therefore, as a rule, after program start or after any
change in the allocation of tools the applicable offset values (co-ordinates,
radii and quadrants of turning tools) must be specified, so that the offset
can be computed in the control system. A total of 99 offset value storage
files are available. The appropriate file for each tool can be activated
by entering the last two digits of the four-digit tool number.
The predefined ("gauged") offset values of each tool can be read in from the tool file. When a "reference tool" has been defined, the offset values can alternately be established by "touching" the workpiece. Faulty offset values will of course lead to inaccurate machining or even collisions. At the same time it is possible as in general practice to create finishing allowances by entering slightly different offset values.
|Feed times||As an additional function the feed times (in seconds) of each tool employed can be ascertained. The engagement time of a tool (measured from the start of an NC program run) is indicated in the menu, and from this taking into account the theoretical tool life, the remaining tool life can be calculated. This is an important aspect of preparatory activities.The feed times are retained and cumulated, even through a sequence of NC program executions. They are however reset to zero each time a tool change or a manual input is effected.|
|Reference Point||As with the setup of the actual machine tool, the approach of the reference point is indispensable in the CNC Simulators; it serves to establish the zero position for incremental measuring along the axes. Approach of the reference point is also a precondition for defining the workpart zero and for execution of NC programs in the Automatic Mode.|
|Workpart Zero||Setting the workpart zero is possible in any position by "zeroing" the co-ordinates. Usually this will be effected by touching the workpart. Alternatively the co-ordinate values of the tool tip resp. the cutter centre can be redefined.|
|Manual Mode||Among the special features of the CNC Simulators is the option of moving the spindle carriage, resp. the tool, in jog motion, e.g. to execute a "manual" pre-tooling of the workpart. This machining is of course also simulated in real time, including feedrate, spindle speed, feedrate override and collision checks. In the manual mode the co-ordinates of the tool nose, resp. the cutter centre are continuously updated and accordingly displayed in the course of the machining. The incremental steps can be set to either 1.0, 0.1 or 0.01 mm. Further options in this operational mode are: tool change, entering of spindle speeds and feedrate values, switching on and off the coolant.|
|The automatic mode serves to execute and test in real time simulation NC programs which have been generated in the CNC Simulators, in the INCAD system or by application of some other programming system. The automatic run includes collision checks and offers a variety of ways to optimise NC programs, especially when the extensive configuration opportunities are being drawn on.|
|Display||Screen representation of the machining is dynamically updated and the
actual tool co-ordinates as well as the NC blocks being executed are indicated.
The machining times and feed times are calculated concurrently. The accurate
and comprehensive collision monitoring puts the user in a position to quickly
ascertain and immediately correct any program errors. In addition to this,
programs can be executed blockwise, in the so-called "single block mode".
As well as normal program termination, the automatic run can be temporarily suspended to invoke such functions as measuring, zooming or 3D representation. The program run can also be terminated to call up a different machining procedure.
|Override / Test Run||During the automatic run the machining times and down times are continuously
computed. They are directly dependent on the feedrate override which is
configurable within a range of 10% to 150%. Tool change times are calculated
according to the values configured and are added to the machine down times.
When the test run function is activated, the machining simulation is of course much faster than the actual machining would be in fact the speed of the simulation also depends on the performance of the Personal Computer employed. This does not however impede the exact calculation of machining times during the test run.
When the system is reset to the setup mode after program execution, the established feed times of the respective tools (cf. above Ch. 4) can be displayed.
With any NC program the traverse paths can be displayed, with feed motion and rapid traverse marked in different colours.
|"Programming Code" or "Command Code" stands for the entirety of G-functions,
cycles and machine commands, including all parameters and their combinations,
which can be effected by a CNC control system. Especially in those sectors
of program design which are not covered by the German Standard (DIN), there
is a great variety of manufacturer-specific solutions with the effect that
programs can not easily be run under different control systems.
The programming code (the syntax) of the MTS Simulators has therefore been conceived as an open system: it is not fixed but can be edited or redefined by employing the "Free Definition Programming Code" to create a "Cross-Reference File". Thus the user can generate his own programming code, orientated on the DIN blocks, on which his subsequent NC programming will be based.
As all further generation of programming codes is based on the standard command code supplied with the MTS Simulators, this code is designed to provide a most comprehensive syntax. Among its commands are the following:
1 cf. Ch.11 for a detailed description of the "Freely Configurable Programming Code"
2 "Syntax" means here and in the following the formal structure of NC commands, i.e. the selection and assignation of parameters and the signs to the specified values.
|Turning and Milling:|
|G01 - G03||Linear and Circle Interpolation|
|G22||Subroutines with a Maximum of elevenfold Nesting|
|G23||Repetition of Program Parts|
|G25||Moving to the Reference Point|
|G26||Moving to the Tool-Change Position|
|G40 - G42||Tool Nose Compensation / Cutter Radius Compensation|
|G54 - G58||Setting the Zero Point|
|G53, G59||Zero Shift|
|G71 - G73||Programming of Contour Strings|
|G90 - G91||Absolute / Incremental Co-ordinates|
|G36||Path limits for G83|
|G57||Finishing Allowance for Cycles G81 - G83|
|G65, G66||Straight and Cross Roughing Cycle, Tapered Contour|
|G75, G76||Straight and Cross Roughing Cycle, Rectangular Contour|
|G81, G82||Straight and Cross Roughing Cycle, any following Contour|
|G83||Roughing Parallel to Contours, Repeated Cycle|
|G84||Deep Drilling Cycle|
|G87, G88||Radius resp. Chamfer Cycle|
|G92||Spindle Speed Limitation|
|G94, G95||Feedrate mm p. min / p. rev.|
|G96, G97||Constant Cutting Speed / Constant Spindle Speed|
|G10||Rapid Traverse by Polar Coordinates|
|G11 - G13||Linear and Circular Interpolation by Polar Coordinates|
|G45 - G47||Approach and Retreat Information for Cutter Radius Compensation.|
|G81 - G86||Drilling, Reaming, Thread Milling Cycles|
|G87 - G88||Pockets (Rectangle, Circle)|
|G61, G77||Drilling (Cycle) Pattern on a Circle|
|G78||Drilling (Cycle) Pattern on a Straight Line|
|Apart from these G-functions machine functions (activated by "M" as a first character) as well as other switching functions (denoted by characters "F," "S" and "T") are also available. NC programming with parameters or subroutines is of course possible too.|
|Data Formats||As already mentioned, the CNC Simulators can be configured to operate with different programming codes. If the respective NC commands, including formats, keywords and register values, have been properly assigned, the user will be in a position to emulate the programming code of a foreign CNC control. For training purposes this offers a double advantage:|
|Data Transmission||1. As the generated NC programs are run-capable without further modifications
(except, if necessary, the transmission control characters) postprocessors
are no longer needed for the transmission of programs to the actual CNC
machine tool (Cf. below, Ch.10).
2. Different programming codes (esp. the PAL code, cf. below, Ch.7.5) can be used in the training to point out the peculiarities of these codes and to make the trainees acquainted with their application.
|When programming is done directly from design drawings which have not
been dimensioned according to NC requirements, the task will be much facilitated
by the possibility of entering the geometry data of a sequence of chained
contour segments, so-called "contour strings". Instead of entering the
co-ordinates of a corner point or circle centre (parameters according to
German Standard DIN 66025) the contour string commands G71 (straight line),
G72 (circular arc, clockwise) and G73 (circular arc, counterclockwise)
allow direct input of further design data such as angles, lengths, tangential
tranistions etc. This relieves the user from the chore of intermediate
The MTS control system provides programming of multiple-point contour strings and open contours, including sequences of "undefined" spans (entities). The "intermediate points" will be computed by the system (see Diagr.). Even contours of high geometric complexity can therefore be programmed easily, starting out from the design drawing of the part. No special mathematical knowledge or further aid is necessary. The process can be further facilitated by employing the "WOP-Interface" (see Ch. 7.4) which is specially designed for segment contour programming and offers convenient user guidance.
Extract from a Program
|Example of contour string programming:
|Explanations:||[The character "(" denotes the beginning of comments in the program]
N021: Activation of cutter radius compens. to the right of the contour, with semicircular approach;
N023: circular arc (counterclockwise), 1st entity of an open four-point contour string, with absolute centre co-ordinates (P070); choice of alternate solutions (P001);
N025: tangential transition (P000) onto clockwise circular arc, 2nd entity of the open four-point contour string, with radius B specified only;
N027: tangential transition (P000) onto counterclockwise circular arc , 3rd entity of the open four-point contour string, with absolute centre co-ordinates (P070), radius specification; choice of alternate solutions.
In the following this entity is treated as the 1st entity of a closed four-point contour string;
N029: tangential transition (P000) onto counterclockwise circular arc , 2nd entity of the closed four-point contour string, with radius only;
N031: tangential transition (P000) onto counterclockwise circular arc , 3rd entity of the closed four-point contour string, with absolute (P070) centre co-ordinates and end co-ordinate in X, radius B specified and choice No.2 of alternate solutions (P002);
N033 Deactivation of cutter radius compensation, with semicircular retreat.
|CRC||The MTS Simulators naturally provide cutter radius- and tool tip compensation,
which is a standard feature of modern CNC controls.
In the CNC Simulator for Milling the invocation of G41 or G42 allows cutting along the programmed contour with the appropriate cutter radius compensation (CRC). Additionally the approach and retreat movements of the tool can be programmed with the applicable NC commands: G45 (contour parallel approach / retreat), G46 (semicircular approach / retreat), G47 (quadrant approach / retreat).
As a special feature, the number of contour segments anticipated in the computing of the cutter radius compensation can be configured (only anticipation of the next span is a standard with CNC controls).
|Tool Tip Compensation||Accordingly, the commands G41 or G42 in the CNC Simulator for Turning invoke tip radius compensation of the inserts, taking the "working quadrant" into account. The working quadrant determines the position of the centre of the tool, relative to the tool cutting point, as defined in the tool configuration. In addition, this procedure of predefining ("gauging") helps the user understand the effects of cutter radius compensation and learn about the technically unavoidable radiusing of internal corners.|
|As already mentioned, almost all the work cycles found in CNC controls
have been built in to the CNC Simulators, so as to fulfil our primary aim
of providing a whole range of CNC controls which can be reproduced by application
of the freely configurable programming code.
In the following overview most of the common standard cycles available as well as some complex machining procedures are listed:
Extract from a Program
|Examples and explanations of cycle programming:
|Explanations:||[The character "(" denotes the beginning of comments in the program]
N105: Rectangular pocket cycle, with specification of finished size, depth of pockets, corner radius and tool adjustments;
N110: Repeated cycle for machining along a straight line, with co-ordinates for the first execution, specification of angles, of distances between and number of pockets;
N115: Circular pockets cycle, with specification of radius and depth of pockets, the clearance plane and the tool adjustments;
N120: Single cycle, with specification of co-ordinates;
N125: Tool change, tool adjustment and machining data;
N130: Deep drilling cycle, with chip breaking, specification of drilling depth; 1st drilling level, dwell times and degression;
N135: Tool adjustment in X;
N140: Cycle for machining along circular arcs, with arc centre co-ordinates and radius, specification of cycle start angle, difference angles between starting positions of subsequent invocations, number of repetitions.
|Segment Contour Programming
Tool Tip Compensation
|Segment Contour Programming
Cutter Radius Compensation with Approach / Retreat Statement
|Cutting Cycles:|| straight or cross turning
contour parallel with/without movement limitation
optional (non-monotonous) follow-up contours
interrupted cut for chip breaking
automatic check for remaining chips
| deep hole drilling (with chip breaking)
| combinable with other
| circular pocket
|Undercuts:|| according to DIN 76 and DIN 509, form E or F|
|Grooves:|| chamfered or radiused or
with slanted sides
|Deep Drilling Cycles|
|These NC programs can be extended by subprograms (with a maximum tenfold nesting) and can be standardised by using parameters (parameter programming, including calculating functions).|
|Both simulators have four programming modes:|
|Programming Modes|| Editor,
Workshop-Oriented Programming (WOP).
Each of these modes is designed to meet specific requirements, and with their clear layout and error messages they all offer convenient user guidance during program generation. It is possible to switch from one mode to another at any time during programming, and so to exploit the advantages of the different input systems.
|The NC Editor provides a programming interface customised for convenient input or editing of NC blocks. Each classification letter defined in the programming code has a fixed format, which states the number of spaces before and behind the decimal point and whether input of signs is permitted. These formats are freely configurable.|
|Input of NC Blocks|| In the course of programming only the input of address, sign and value is required, the complete format (e.g. "X+1" => "X+001.000") will then be established automatically and classification letters will be sorted. The sequence of classification letters within a program line is either established in accordance with DIN 66025 or may be defined by the user.|
|Editing Functions||NC block numbers are also automatically assigned. Renumbering an NC program or specific segments of a program is as easily effected as searching for a word, reading-in other NC programs, printing hardcopies etc. Editing functions available are: input, overwriting, deleting, copying and shifting of classification letters, values, NC blocks and program segments.|
|Error Check||During program generation the editor takes care of the important task of formal error detection: a syntax check is carried out line by line. As long as all input is error-free this procedure will run unnoticed indicated only by the remark "syntax correct", in the status area at the top of the editor screen. If however an NC block whose formal structure is invalid (e.g. "G41" and "G40" programmed in the same line) has been entered and confirmed, the respective line will be marked in red and an error message ("syntax not correct") will appear.|
|Display||The screen layout in Interactive Programming is the same as in Automatic
Mode, except that the line above the function keys, normally showing the
current NC block, is now used for the program generation. Each NC block
entered is executed on-line as soon as it has been confirmed. Two types
of error correction are provided:
1. a plaintext error message appears (e.g. "Collision")
The user can undo the machining effected by the faulty block by striking any key. Immediate correction in the respective program line is possible, then the simulation can be re-activated.
|Dialog||2. a prompt appears: "Adopt NC block?"
In this case the Simulator has successfully executed the programmed machining. It is now up to the programmer to decide (in the course of an interactive entry sequence) whether to accept the result. If approved, the NC block is adopted as part of the program being created and the system will be ready for input of the next program line. If the user discards the result, the machining effected by this block will be undone (as in the case of errors) where cycles are concerned, this may amount to a considerable number of cancelled movements.
The immedeate simulation of NC command execution and the direct correction of input errors has been widely approved in the practice of CNC training. Interactive Programming provides a clear, application-oriented introduction to programming, which is a perfect learning aid. In addition, it can be used alongside "Workshop-Oriented Programming", whenever the programming of complex contour geometries is required.
|Teach-In is a special mode of Interactive Programming. As in the setup mode, the tool is manually controlled while the tool-paths generated in the course of machining are automatically converted into basic G-functions and inserted into the NC program.|
|Although segment contour programming (as described above, Ch. 7.2) does much to facilitate the programmer's task, some serious problems may still arise with complex geometries. As practice has shown, the input of NC blocks is often at such a high level of abstraction that the problems can not immediately are resolved even by invoking programming aids and further information on geometry input possibilities.|
|WOP Interface||To resolve such complex input problems, a new programming mode has
been developed which is especially designed to meet the requirements of
production practice. The so-called "Workshop-Oriented Programming"
mode (WOP) is basically a programming interface for CNC technologies. It
was originally conceived in the context of a project sponsored by the German
Ministry of Research and Development, but it has not been declared a DIN
Standard. The general idea of this concept is that the generation of NC
programs should be possible by employing only softkey functions
and by an interactive programming procedure. At each stage in the
programming the workpart geometry is graphically displayed (in a
way similar to a CAD program). Whenever there are several mathematical
solutions, these are offered for selection.
The WOP interface provided by MTS has all of these features plus some additional capabilities for convenience fo use:
The MTS WOP interface can easily be installed to function with the CNC Simulators. Consequently, it is possible different programming modes to switch through, so as to make full use of the respective advantages of each system.
In the course of NC programming the generated contour and the generating NC block are displayed together on the screen. That means, that the results of programming can be checked immedeately and the input correct if necessary. Geometry definitions are directly linked to the program generation.
Conversely all programmed contours can be read in to be ready for editing by the functions of the WOP interface.
The MTS programming code allows for programming of multiple-point contour strings and open contours, including sequences of "undefined" spans (entities). The user is relieved of extensive calculations, as the programming system confines the dialogue to prompts concerning a selection of valid parameters, inclusive of rounding and chamfering data. Thus the programmer can be certain of the contour being unequivocally defined and of its being executed on the workpart. In addition to this, auxiliary diagrams are available to help with the parameter input.
WOP programming generally starts out with the definition of a contour segment (entity) as a straight line or a circular arc (clockwise or counterclockwise) with either a tangential or non-tangential transition. The system then offers a choice of geometry input possibilities, including a check on the mathematical validity of inputs. If the contour entered is sufficiently determined, it will be graphically displayed online.
of the WOP
|Straight line with/without tangential transition||G71|
|Corner coordinates||X and Z|
|Length of chamfer||Fc|
|Circular arc (clockwise/counterclockwise) with/without tangential transition.||G72 or G73|
|End coordinates||X and Z|
|Centre coordinates||I and K|
|Start angle / end angle||AW and EW|
|For close inspection each contour can be magnified and dimensioned according to the DIN Standard. A further special feature of the WOP programming interface is the automatic (definite and irreversible) assignation of programmed contours to the applicable DIN commands. It is possible to switch to a different programming mode without differences in the NC Syntax causing problems.|
|To facilitate the generation and checking of NC programs, each CNC
Simulator provides a number of special functions, including:
Magnification of details: zooming,
|As mentioned above, the displayed sector of the working space of the
machine tool can be edited at any time during machining, and zoomed details
of the machining can be viewed. The workpart is displayed with its rotating
edges; those internal corners which are rounded by the tip radius (so-called
"apparent edges") are represented by two thin lines ending a short distance
from the body edges.
The zoom function is also available with Workshop-Oriented Programming and Measuring.
|Thread Geometry||As a new feature with Version 5.3 of the software the geometry of threads is considered and can be displayed online, so that lead and depth of threads as well as nominal and minor diameters can be exactly dimensioned.|
|The "Measuring" function serves to check the workpart geometry which
results from the machining. It can be activated at any time during turning,
and also during interactive programming. Two types of dimensioning are
entity dimensioning specifies all geometry data (start and end point,
transition angles, lengths, circle centres etc.) of contour segments (straight
lines or arcs),
During dimensioning the zoom or magnifying function can be activated for separate dimensioning of a workpart detail. Repeated magnification is possible, the maximum being a detail of 6/1000 mm by 8/1000 mm magnified to fill the screen.
|To verify the surface quality the theoretical roughing depth is established with each cutting cycle. In accordance with German Standard DIN 4768, Part 1, the maximum roughing depth and the mean value of surface roughness can be measured.|
|For screen representation of the machining MTS has conceived a solution which requires extensive mathematical computation:|
|CNC Turning||In the MTS turning simulation the tool tip geometry is not simplified;
any generalized polygon of lines and arcs can be assumed as a cutting edge.
The complexity of the resulting area can be appreciated even from the simple
example of a standard disposable insert, defined by a straight line, an
arc and a straight line, moving along a circular arc.
Therefore, for each basic G function the area covered by the cutting edge is computed and brought to coincidence with the actual workpart contour - i.e. integrated into the internal mathematical model of the workpart. A theoretical roughing depth, established from the cutting edge geometry and the feed motion, is attributed to each contour span.
It follows from this calculation, that the only linkage between the generated geometry and the NC program data is the resulting tool motion. Furthermore this data model allows the graphic representation of body lines (true and apparent edges), relieve cuts, thread geometries and roughing depths, as well as a variety of intersections through the workpart. As a rule internal machining is displayed in half or full section, while external machining is displayed either in half section or in external view.
|CNC Milling||In the MTS milling simulation vertical intersection areas (through
the cutter centre, in the X/Z and Y/Z planes, according to G 17) can be
inserted as additional windows in the screen representation of the workpart,
the jaws and the tool. These inserts will be displayed above and to the
right of the workpart and will be dynamically updated in the course of
The (dynamically updated) motion of the cutter (with its spindle) can be viewed in a further overlay window, inserted in the intersection display. In this way the user always has three views of the machining process, which means convenient and precise control of the NC program execution.
Finally, the screen display as described above can be complemented by screen representations of freely definable intersections through the workpart. This mode of display allows free movement of section areas in the X and Y axes, independent of the cutter centre position. Once more the intersection display is dynamically updated. A line (which of course can be edited) indicates the Z plane.
|As a further support feature the system can display of 3D representations of the workpart from any visual angle, at any time during machining. For a view of internal machining, the user can define circular sectors (CNC Turning), resp. quadrants of the workpart (CNC Milling) to be removed in the 3D representation.|
|Data Transmission||NC programs which have been generated or edited with MTS software can
be read-in to the control system of a CNC machine tool and subsequently
be executed. Conversely, it is also possible provided certain requirements
are met to transmit NC programs from the machine control system to the
MTS Simulators, e.g. for modification or test run purposes.
The transmission program is designed to transmit NC programs without any changes of format or syntax. Certain control characters, such as for encoding program start and program end or line feed can be defined by the user. To facilitate the interface configuration and to ensure a perfect interconnection, the transmission program allows the link between the Simulator and the target machine control to be tested before it is actually established.
|Postprocessors||NC programs written in the MTS- or PAL programming code must be translated
into the code of the machine control before they can be read by the control
system. For these purpose a variety of postprocessors are available, each
designed for a specific control system and for adjustment to the respective
The postprocessors change the MTS-coded programs into basic NC blocks which correspond to the DIN standard and whose syntax is compatible with the dialect of DIN used in the target control. At present more than seventy postprocessors are available.
The most economic solution for the translation of NC programs is the Generalized Postprocessor, which enables the user to determine cross-references of commands in the translation. Provided that these features are supported by the target control system, the performance characteristics of the Generalized Postprocessor are the following:
Addresses are changed if necessary,
The capabilities of the target control system as well as of the MTS software are used to the full in the translation. With its user-defined command references between the source and the object code, the Generalized Postprocessor is a powerful and universal tool which can adapt the MTS software to a wide variety of CNC control systems.
|Anton CNC 3300
Bosch CNC Alpha 3
Deckel Contour 2
Deckel Contour 3
Deckel Dialog 4
Deckel Dialog 11
DIN (66025) Milling
Emcotronic M 1
Emcotronic TM 02
Engelhardt CNC 3300
Fanuc Series 0-MB
Fanuc Series 00-MB
Fanuc Series 0-MC
Heckler & Koch 781
Heckler & Koch 783
Heidenhain TNC 151/155 (DIN/ISO)
Heidenhain TNC 355 (DIN/ISO)
|Heidenhain TNC 360 (DIN/ISO)
Heidenhain TNC 407/415 (DIN/ISO)
Heidenhain TNC 151/155 (Klartext)
Heidenhain TNC 355 (Klartext)
Heidenhain TNC 360 (Klartext)
Heidenhain TNC 407/415 (Klartext)
Maho CNC 332 M (Klartext)
Maho CNC 332 (DIN/ISO)
Maho CNC 332 (Klartext)
Maho CNC 432
Maho CNC 532 M
NUM 720 F
NUM 750 F
NUM 760 F
Seibu EDM-EW 30NT
Sinumerik 3 M
Sinumerik 810 M
|Acramatic Cincinnati Milacron
Anton CNC 3300
Bosch CNC Alpha 2
DIN (66025) Turning
Emcotronic T 1
Emcotronic TM 02
Engelhardt CNC 3300T
Fanuc Series 0-TB
Fanuc Series 00-TB
Fanuc Series 10-TB
Fanuc Series 15-TA
Fanuc Series 15-TF
Fanuc Series 15-TTA
Fanuc Series 150-TTA
Fanuc Series 6-TB
|Gildemeister EPL 1
Gildemeister EPL 2
Maho graziano Spa CNC MG 423T
Maho CNC 432 T
NUM 720 T
NUM 750 T
NUM 760 T
Okuma OSP 500L-G
Sinumerik 3 T
Sinumerik 8 T
Sinumerik 810 T
Sinumerik 820 T
Sinumerik 850 T
Traub TX 8D
Traub TX 8F
Postprocessors for other control systems can be developed on request
|The programming codes of CNC systems, although based on the German
Standard DIN 66025, do vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. Exploiting
the freedom of the standard, each system is designed to facilitate NC programming
by providing segment contour programming and specific machine cycles. We
have therefore developed an individual programming code for MTS Simulators,
which is non manufactorer-specific and which fulfils two major requirements:
it permits all contour strings and machining cycles common to other control
systems by way of its superior "command standard" and at the same time
guarantees convenient NC programming. The success which the MTS system
has achieved in CNC training fully endorses the strategy adopted.
In addition to the MTS and PAL programmings codes we also offer a software module, which allows the application of any other NC syntax in the CNC Simulators. Provided you have the "Free Definition Programming Code" license, NC blocks of the foreign syntax can be assigned to the respective MTS syntax blocks. In this way a foreign command code can be used to generate NC programs in the CNC Simulators.
A definable programming code file serves to convert the various NC commands. The comprehensive "command standard" of the MTS programming code means that even NC commands from a foreign programming code can be assigned to MTS-coded commands. The "translation" of single NC blocks is then carried out, based on there cross-references.
Each new programming code file is generated with the help of a special editor, which can be invoked from the configuration program. Programming codes which are already part of the configuration can easily be selected or edited for use with a task in one of the CNC Simulators.
1 For a description of the MTS Programming Code cf. above. Ch.7.
|Programming aids, which are classified by subject, can be activated
at any stage in the operation of the CNC Simulators. The help windows inform
the user of the effects of a G-command or cycle. Directories and general
surveys of the subject matter are provided for quick orientation. In this
way the user has access to most of the programming instructions even during
the actual machining process.
Once the help function has been activated, any number of help windows can be called up. The user can browse through sub-headings, e.g. to compare related commands, or jump from subject to subject to obtain wider information. During interactive programming or program generation with the NC Editor the programming level can be re-activated alongside the help function, and an NC block corrected or entered directly.
The programming aids are designed to support the basic didactical concept of the CNC Simulators. On one level, the user is provided with immediate answers to any questions he may have, while on another level, help windows providing information on wider aspects of programming are available. The reputation of the MTS Simulators for learner-friendliness is due in no small way to there extensive help facilities.
|The CNC Simulator software is run-capable on IBM compatible PCs under
MS-DOS (from Version 3.00 upwards). A UNIX version of the software is also
Hardware requirements for running the MS-DOS Version 5.3 of the MTS CNC Simulator package are as follows:
4 MB of RAM
- HVGA (1024 x 768 pixels)
For use with 80386-processors
Optional enhancements of the systems are:
|Hardcopy||Output of hardcopies requires a printer driver compatible with the graphics card and the printer used.|
CNC Simulators for Turning and Milling - System Description - Version
© MTS Mathematisch Technische Software-Entwicklung GmbH
Kaiserin-Augusta-Allee 101 D-10553 Berlin Tel.: +49/30/34 99 600 Fax: +49/30/34 99 60 25 e-Mail:
Deckel is a registered trademark of the Friedrich Deckel AG. EPL is a registered trademark of the Gildemeister AG. MAHO is a registered trademark of the MAHO AG. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of the Microsoft Corporation. Hercules is a registered trademark of the Hercules Corporation. HP is a registered trademark of the Hewlett-Packard Corporation. IBM is a registered trademark of the International Business Machines Corporation. Olivetti is a registered trademark of the Ing. C. Olivetti & C., S.p.A. DIN: Deutsche Industrie Norm, Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V.
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Copyright © 1996-2006 MTS GmbH Berlin Letztes Update: 04.01. 2006